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Pecan is a large deciduous tree whose average height reaches 20-25 m, but which can also reach 40 m, with a trunk circumference of 6 meters (measured at a height of one meter).
The leaves are compound, imparipinnate 35 to 60 cm long, with alternate phyllotaxis.
The flowers are unisexual gathered in inflorescences which are also unisexual.
The fruits are drupes and have an elongated cylindrical shape. The external exocarp (the equivalent of the walnut husk) measures from 2 to 3 mm in thickness. The endocarp (the innermost part of the fruit) is woody. The fruit is harvested in October-November.
The pecan nut, which is in fact the seed, has a variable shape, generally ovoid, more or less elongated; outwardly it has a smooth appearance and a brown color; it measures from 3 to 4 cm in length and stands at 2 cm in diameter. The edible part (seed) is often marketed inside the shell (which is the endocarp, the innermost part of the fruit) and is surrounded by a light red film. Its flavor resembles that of walnut.